Options trading account definition wikipedia
Calls and puts are the two types of "plain vanilla" options, and most advanced option positions are constructed using a combination of calls and puts. There are also two types of standard put and call options, known as American options and European options.
The difference between the two has nothing to do with physical geography, but rather how and when the options can be exercised. American options can be exercised anytime before the option contract expires, while European options can only be exercised on the expiration date. Options traded publicly on exchanges are nearly always American options, while options that are traded over the counter are mainly European options.
For standard put and call options the payoff to the option holder is relatively simple. Note that when talking about option payoffs it is convention to ignore the price of the option and consider only the amount of money the holder gets for holding the contract to maturity. The holder of a call option will only execute the option if, on maturity, the current price of the underlying asset is greater than the strike price. If this is the case, the call holder can purchase shares at the strike price and sell shares at the market price, netting the difference as profit.
In the case that the strike price is greater than the price of the underlying asset at the time of maturity, the call option is worthless - the holder would prefer to purchase the asset at the current market price and thus would not exercise the option. The payoff of a plain-vanilla call option at maturity is,. The graph below shows the relationship between the payoff of a call option and the price of the underlying security at maturity.
The holder of a put option has the right but not the obligation to sell shares of the underlying asset at the strike price upon maturity. As such, it is only profitable for the holder to do so if they can sell the shares when the strike price is greater than the market price at maturity.
The value of a put option at maturity is,. An option's value and payoff is directly related to the price and volatility of an underlying asset, as well as factors such as the proximity to the expiration date. Options can be valued using different valuation methods including the popular Black-Scholes Model which uses many variables to calculate the estimated value of an option.
When someone purchases 1 call option on a stock which expires in 1 year, the value of the option will increase as the underlying security rises in value. At the same time, the option will slowly lose time value as time progresses and the option gets closer to the expiration date. Most options expire worthless at expiration becuase they are "out of the money. On the flip side, a put option is considered "out of the money" when the underlying stock price is trading above the strike price of the option.
From the makers of. Unable to complete your request. Please refresh your browser. See more recent news. In November , Ms Jaitley launches India's first agro options contract in guar seeds, says will benefit farmers. Since January 3rd , firms involved in binary The trading will be officially launched by the Finance Minister in New Delhi. To start with, opt Robinhood is launching a free options trading product for its users. Robinhood, the zero-commission stock broker, has a new sophisticated investment product for its more than 3 million users.
The Palo Alto-based company announced Wednesday it would offer free options trading. An option is a financial product The following year, he formed his first company, named T.
At the time, trading used an open outcry system; Peterffy developed algorithms to determine the best prices for options and used those on the trading floor,  and thus the firm became the first to use daily printed fair value pricing sheets. In , the company expanded to employ four traders, three of whom were AMEX members. In , Peterffy renamed T. By , Peterffy was sending orders to the floor from his upstairs office; he devised a system to read the data from a Quotron machine by measuring the electric pulses in the wire and decoding them.
The data would be then sent through Peterffy's trading algorithms, and then Peterffy would call down the trades. At the time, the AMEX didn't permit computers on the trading floor. Because of this, Peterffy had an assistant deliver market information from his office in the World Trade Center. In , Timber Hill created the first handheld computers used for trading.
As Peterffy explained in a interview, the battery-powered units had touch screens for the user to input a stock price and it would produce the recommended option prices,   and it also tracked positions and continually repriced options on stocks. When he made the device smaller, the committee stated that no analytic devices were allowed to be used on the exchange floor. Effectively blocked from using the CBOE, he sought to use his devices in other exchanges.
Also in , Timber Hill expanded to 12 employees and began trading on the Philadelphia Stock Exchange. In , Timber Hill began coding a computerized stock index futures and options trading system and, in February , Timber Hill's system and network was brought online.
The system was designed to centrally price and manage risk on a portfolio of equity derivatives traded in multiple locations around the country. However, the stock exchange only allowed it to be used at trading booths several yards away from where transactions were executed. Peterffy responded by designing a code system for his traders to read colored bars emitted in patterns from the video displays of computers in the booths. This caused the exchange and other members to be suspicious of insider trading , which convinced Timber Hill to distribute instructions throughout the exchange, describing how to read the displays.
Eventually computers were allowed on the trading floor. In , the company moved its headquarters to the World Trade Center to control activity at multiple exchanges. Peterffy again hired workers to sprint from his offices to the exchanges with updated handheld devices, which he later superseded with phone lines carrying data to computers at the exchanges.
Peterffy later built miniature radio transmitters into the handhelds and the exchange computers to allow data to automatically flow to them. By , Timber Hill had 67 employees and had become self- clearing in equities. Because of this, Peterffy pledged that Timber Hill would make tight markets in the product for a year if the exchange would allow the traders to use handheld computers on the trading floor.
At that time, Timber Hill had employees. While Peterffy was trading on the Nasdaq in ,  he created the first fully automated algorithmic trading system. It consisted of an IBM computer that would pull data from a Nasdaq terminal connected to it and carry out trades on a fully automated basis. The machine, for which Peterffy wrote the software, worked faster than a trader could. Peterffy and his team designed a system with a camera to read the terminal, a computer to decode the visual data, and mechanical fingers to type in the trade orders, which was then accepted by the Nasdaq.
In , Timber Hill France S. By , Timber Hill had employees. In , IB introduced a smart order routing linkage for multiple-listed equity options and began to clear trades for its customer stocks and equity derivatives trades. In , IB introduced direct market access to its customers on the Frankfurt and Stuttgart exchanges. In the same year, IB upgraded its account management system and Trader Workstation, adding real-time charts, scanners, fundamental analytics, and tools BookTrader and OptionTrader to the platform.
In , the IB Options Intelligence Report was launched to report on unusual concentrations of trading interests and changing levels of uncertainty in the option markets. In , Interactive Brokers started offering penny-priced options. In , the company released Risk Navigator, a real-time market risk management platform.
Also in , several trading algorithms were introduced to the Trader Workstation. Among these is the Accumulate-Distribute Algo, which allows traders to divide large orders into small non-uniform increments and release them at random intervals over time to achieve better prices for large volume orders. Interactive Brokers also became in the largest online U.
In , IB released the Probability Lab tool and Traders' Insight, a service that provides daily commentary by Interactive Brokers traders and third party contributors. An IB FYI also can act to automatically suspend a customer's orders before the announcement of major economic events that influence the market. Interactive Brokers is the largest electronic brokerage firm in the US by number of daily average revenue trades,  and is the leading forex broker.
Peterffy has described the company as similar to Charles Schwab Corporation or TD Ameritrade , however specializing in providing brokerage services to larger customers and charging low transaction costs. He also described the company's focus on building technology over having high sales, with technology often used to automate systems in order to service customers at a low cost.
Interactive Brokers Group has nine directors, including Thomas Peterffy, Chairman of the Board of Directors, who as the largest shareholder is able to elect board members. Among the company's directors are Lawrence E.